The city grew as an important centre for the wool trade in the 14th century, and later became a major coal mining area.
The port developed in the 16th century and, along with the shipyards lower down the River Tyne, was amongst the world's largest shipbuilding and ship-repairing centres.
From 1530, a royal act restricted all shipments of coal from Tyneside to Newcastle Quayside, giving a monopoly in the coal trade to a cartel of Newcastle burgesses known as the Hostmen.
This monopoly, which lasted for a considerable time, helped Newcastle prosper and develop into a major town.
The status of city was granted to Newcastle on 3 June 1882.commonly known as Newcastle, is a city in Tyne and Wear, North East England, 103 miles (166 km) south of Edinburgh and 277 miles (446 km) north of London on the northern bank of the River Tyne, 8.5 mi (13.7 km) from the North Sea.The regional nickname and dialect for people from Newcastle and the surrounding area is Geordie.Newcastle also houses Newcastle University, a member of the Russell Group, as well as Northumbria University.The city developed around the Roman settlement Pons Aelius and was named after the castle built in 1080 by Robert Curthose, William the Conqueror's eldest son.